The Nobel Peace Prize for 2015: Goes to the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet
Kevin P Clements.
Despite all the pundits who were predicting a Nobel Prize for Angela Merkel , Pope Francis or the parties to violence in Colombia, the Nobel Prize Committee gave the award to the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet.
It’s a curious award at one level because Tunisia is still a country that is finely poised between democracy and instability. On the other hand it is a bold Award that is consistent with Nobel’s desire that people be rewarded for their initiatives to build peace and mutuality across boundaries of deep difference. I also like the fact that it has been awarded to four grass roots organisations rather than a political leader , or a regional or global organisation.
It is vital that ordinary people and groups are recognised for taking courageous action for peace at the level of locality rather than as leaders on the national, regional or global political stage. This reinforces my sense that the effective politics of the 21st century will be decentralised, localised, civil society and community driven rather than centralised, deterritorialised, and politically driven.
The rationale for the award highlights some important truths about peacebuilding everywhere. Peacebuilding does not consist of eliminating conflict it consists of creating institutions and processes capable of generating civilised and respectful discussion and dialogue about divisive differences. The expression of political difference in a respectful and peaceable fashion is a major contribution towards social and political harmony. It sounds as though this quartet have understood this simple truth and in their work together have encouraged peaceful dialogue between citizens, political parties and the government in a nation and region where deep divisions are all too often resolved violently.
As always, however, this prize is sending a wider signal to the Middle East about the importance of seeking negotiated rather than military or coercive solutions to problems . It is a warning to Russia, the US, Australia and others who want to bomb opponents into submission that there are other ways of achieving peace which are likely to be much more effective over the short and long term. So I congratulate the Committee on its 2015 award.
Nobel Committee- Press release
The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided that the Nobel Peace Prize for 2015 is to be awarded to the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011. The Quartet was formed in the summer of 2013 when the democratization process was in danger of collapsing as a result of political assassinations and widespread social unrest. It established an alternative, peaceful political process at a time when the country was on the brink of civil war. It was thus instrumental in enabling Tunisia, in the space of a few years, to establish a constitutional system of government guaranteeing fundamental rights for the entire population, irrespective of gender, political conviction or religious belief.
The National Dialogue Quartet has comprised four key organizations in Tunisian civil society: the Tunisian General Labour Union (UGTT, Union Générale Tunisienne du Travail), the Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts (UTICA, Union Tunisienne de l’Industrie, du Commerce et de l’Artisanat), the Tunisian Human Rights League (LTDH, La Ligue Tunisienne pour la Défense des Droits de l’Homme), and the Tunisian Order of Lawyers (Ordre National des Avocats de Tunisie). These organizations represent different sectors and values in Tunisian society: working life and welfare, principles of the rule of law and human rights. On this basis, the Quartet exercised its role as a mediator and driving force to advance peaceful democratic development in Tunisia with great moral authority. The Nobel Peace Prize for 2015 is awarded to this Quartet, not to the four individual organizations as such.
The Arab Spring originated in Tunisia in 2010-2011, but quickly spread to a number of countries in North Africa and the Middle East. In many of these countries, the struggle for democracy and fundamental rights has come to a standstill or suffered setbacks. Tunisia, however, has seen a democratic transition based on a vibrant civil society with demands for respect for basic human rights.
An essential factor for the culmination of the revolution in Tunisia in peaceful, democratic elections last autumn was the effort made by the Quartet to support the work of the constituent assembly and to secure approval of the constitutional process among the Tunisian population at large. The Quartet paved the way for a peaceful dialogue between the citizens, the political parties and the authorities and helped to find consensus-based solutions to a wide range of challenges across political and religious divides. The broad-based national dialogue that the Quartet succeeded in establishing countered the spread of violence in Tunisia and its function is therefore comparable to that of the peace congresses to which Alfred Nobel refers in his will.
The course that events have taken in Tunisia since the fall of the authoritarian Ben Ali regime in January 2011 is unique and remarkable for several reasons. Firstly, it shows that Islamist and secular political movements can work together to achieve significant results in the country’s best interests. The example of Tunisia thus underscores the value of dialogue and a sense of national belonging in a region marked by conflict. Secondly, the transition in Tunisia shows that civil society institutions and organizations can play a crucial role in a country’s democratization, and that such a process, even under difficult circumstances, can lead to free elections and the peaceful transfer of power. The National Dialogue Quartet must be given much of the credit for this achievement and for ensuring that the benefits of the Jasmine Revolution have not been lost.
Tunisia faces significant political, economic and security challenges. The Norwegian Nobel Committee hopes that this year’s prize will contribute towards safeguarding democracy in Tunisia and be an inspiration to all those who seek to promote peace and democracy in the Middle East, North Africa and the rest of the world. More than anything, the prize is intended as an encouragement to the Tunisian people, who despite major challenges have laid the groundwork for a national fraternity which the Committee hopes will serve as an example to be followed by other countries.
Oslo, 10 October 2015